To resolve the initial group of research concerns concerning the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv, we used episode level data ( ag e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and containing mention intercourse associated with nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to examine between team distinctions with one of these nominal information. For the second collection of research concerns, we used just those implies that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( ag e.g., amount webcam anal of periods each hour of system time with nonheterosexual intimate talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to evaluate team distinctions. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons making use of Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to spot significant differences across teams.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one in six programs inside our examples included any content that is sexualbehavior or talk) associated with nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) to your 2002 2003 period (17.4%) ended up being significant, П‡ 2 (1, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining dining Table 1 shows the percentage of suggests that contained any exact exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by kind of system, and also by time of day aired. For community kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major sites ABC, CBS, and NBC in addition to Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music activity (which included BET and MTV), and premium cable film (including Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). With regards to period of day broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late afternoon/early night and those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Portion of Episodes with Same Intercourse intimate habits and Sexual Talk Related to Nonheterosexuals
Note: Within sort of community and period of day aired, percentages within the exact same line that don’t share subscripts vary at p dining Table 1 ). Generally in most situations, there is a high level of communication between a genre’s general positions for exact same intercourse behavior that is sexual speak about nonheterosexual intimate problems. Also, genres’ standings on both these variables had been fairly stable throughout the two tv periods.
Three genres had been regularly lower in both kinds of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which contained sexual behavior or intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals either in 12 months), news mags (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to own the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and film that is feature. Designed for television films and programs classified as вЂњotherвЂќ additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual but, both these groups included just only a few programs (letter = 7), which makes it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, we do not highlight the findings associated with them although we include these latter two genres in the tables.
System kind evaluations
Across community types, we found similar habits generally speaking in nonheterosexual sexual content between the 2 tv periods, with regularly reduced percentages of programs on commercial broadcast companies containing exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals plus the greatest percentages of shows with both kinds of content on premium cable movie systems. The typical wide range of periods containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior ended up being 3.7 in 12 months 1 and dropped to 3.0 in year 2. This huge difference, nevertheless, had not been statistically significant (p = .23). Likewise a t test of this 331 episodes from 12 months 1 and 12 months 2 that included non heterosexual intimate talk suggested that the real difference within the regularity of these content amongst the two tv periods (4.2 periods in 12 months 1 and 4.9 periods for 12 months 2) had not been significant (p = .18).
Number of Same Intercourse Sexual Behavior and Talk associated with Nonhetrosexuals each hour of system Time
Note: Within sort of system and period of day aired, means within the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p 1 For simplicity of presentation, we make use of the term вЂњnonheterosexualвЂќ to mention collectively to all the people whose sexual orientation just isn’t solely heterosexual, including homosexual men, lesbians, and bisexuals of either intercourse.
2 one other intimate behavior category had been utilized to fully capture all the kinds of intimate tasks that would not end up in the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse implied, and sexual activity depicted including low degree intimate functions such as for instance leering to advanced level intimate functions such as for example masturbation and bondage and discipline.
3 Because our program test was gathered between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., some talk programs, such as for example Jerry Springer, that may deal more often with intimate themes are not included simply because they had been broadcast early in the day. The 12 talk programs within our test included those broadcast into the and evening such as Oprah, Rosie O’Donnell, Ricki Lake, The Other Half, and BET Tonight as well as political talk shows (e.g., Face the Nation, McLaughlin Group, The Chris Matthews Show) afternoon.
4 Because our examples consist of programs from both broadcast that is commercial cable sites, we utilized a regular product wide range of 2 minute intervals per hour of system time in place of amount of 2 moment periods per one hour show to evaluate the regularity of sexual behavior and speak about sex linked to nonheterosexuals. This makes up the fact commercials reduce the amount substantially of system content on broadcast networks to about 22 two moment intervals in a single hour system, whereas 60 minutes cable programs typically have about 30 two moment intervals.
Deborah A. Fisher, Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Douglas L. Hill, Associate Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel W. Grube, Director and a Senior Research Scientist during the Prevention analysis Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Enid L. Gruber, Assistant Professor within the Department of Child and Adolescent Studies at Ca State University, Fullerton.